Why Do We Gain Weight?
“Why are we gaining weight?” There are many answers to this question today. One of these is the Frugal Genotype Hypothesis put forward by James Neel in 1962. And even with this hypothesis, it is argued that obesity is genetic and is the cause of metabolic syndromes (especially Type 2 diabetes). (1) We know that genetic factors influence obesity today. (associated with 32 genes)
But genetics accounts for only 9% of the obesity epidemic. Which creates an effect of at most 10 kg. (2) In the root of metabolic syndromes; The fructose lies! (3) (2) We now know that fructose consumption is increasing with developed countries. (8) Therefore, it is more than our genes that affect us; environment, that is, our way of life, the environment we live in and our diet.
Although the World Sugar Research Organization and other researchers argue that reducing sugar consumption will not improve health and even the benefits of sugar (9) (10) (11) (12) We get negative results when we consume fructose; When we cut our consumption, we see metabolic improvements. (7) (2) When we look today, the common point of all successful nutrition methods in history lies in sugar restriction. (2nd)
The Frugal Genotype Hypothesis, which is also advocated by many today; “Our fat storage is a defense against times of famine by our ancient ancestors.” is the origin of the idea. (1) This hypothesis is not valid today. In other words, our hunter-gatherer ancestors who lived in the past (2 million years ago in the Paleotic period) did not live in the famine-abundance periods mentioned at all. (5) On the contrary, they were fed more varied and abundantly than the agricultural tribes. (6) Today, we know that the rate of obese people in the world is 30% more than hungry people. (2) And the causes of deaths are factors that are preventable. (13) (Table 1)
Against the Frugal Genotype Hypothesis;
First; Primitive hunter-gatherers and agricultural tribes (Samolans, Pimas, Yanomami) living independently of the modern city today do not accumulate fat on their bodies at all. On the contrary, they begin to experience problems (obesity and metabolic syndrome) when they leave their natural habitat. (5)
Second; What is called famine happens every 100-150 years and accounts for at most 10% of total deaths.
Third; In famine people die more from disease than from hunger. This accounts for 5-25% of deaths.
Fourth; Scarcity is a modern problem. There have been no more than 100 famines in the past period.
Fifth; During famine, there is no difference between the obese or the thin. One does not die more than the other. (4)
- Fat Chance: Beating the Odds Against Sugar, Processed Food, Obesity, and Disease
- Sapiens: A Brief History of Humankind